Sistema ABA – Arduino – Desarrollo de un farmbot.


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Páginas: 5.

Documento: “Sistema ABA – Arduino – Desarrollo de un farmbot – 2024-03.Mar.30.doc”



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Introducción. 1




What are FarmBots?

FarmBots are robotic systems designed for precision agriculture. They are typically used in small-scale farming or personal gardens. These robots can be programmed to perform various tasks such as planting seeds, watering plants, monitoring plant health, and removing weeds. FarmBots are part of the broader trend of using technology and automation in agriculture to increase efficiency, reduce labor costs, and improve crop yields. They can be particularly useful in urban gardens or in educational settings where students can learn about agriculture, robotics, and sustainability.

Precision Agriculture.

There is a trend that is happening and is the increasing use of technology and automation in agriculture, often called «precision agriculture» or «smart farming.» This trend involves integrating advanced technologies like robotics, sensors, data analytics, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things (IoT) into farming practices. The goal is to make agriculture more efficient, sustainable, and profitable by:

  1. Optimizing Resource Use: Precision agriculture helps farmers use water, fertilizers, and pesticides more efficiently, reducing waste and environmental impact.
  2. Increasing Crop Yields: By closely monitoring crop health and soil conditions, farmers can make better-informed decisions that lead to higher yields.
  3. Reducing Labor Costs: Automation and robotics, like FarmBots, can perform repetitive tasks, reducing the need for manual labor.
  4. Improving Quality: Technology can help in maintaining consistent quality by monitoring and controlling various factors that affect crop growth.
  5. Enhancing Decision Making: Data analytics and AI can help farmers analyze vast amounts of data to make better decisions about planting, harvesting, and managing crops.
  6. Enabling Precision Farming: Technology allows for precise control over farming operations, such as planting seeds at the optimal depth and spacing or applying the exact amount of nutrients needed by each plant.

Overall, this trend is about leveraging technology to create more efficient, sustainable, and productive agricultural systems.

FarmBots use a variety of technologies to perform their tasks, including:

  1. Robotics: The core of a FarmBot is a robotic arm or gantry system that can move in multiple directions to plant seeds, water plants, and remove weeds.
  2. Computer Vision: Cameras and image processing software are used to identify weeds, monitor plant health, and guide the robot’s actions.
  3. Sensors: Various sensors, such as moisture sensors, temperature sensors, and soil sensors, are used to gather data about the environment and the plants. This data is used to make decisions about watering, planting, and other actions.
  4. GPS and Localization Systems: Some FarmBots use GPS or other localization systems to navigate the field and keep track of where they have planted seeds or removed weeds.
  5. Control Systems: FarmBots are controlled by computer systems that can be programmed with specific instructions for planting patterns, watering schedules, and other tasks. These systems can also process data from sensors and adjust the robot’s actions accordingly.
  6. Internet Connectivity: Many FarmBots are connected to the internet, allowing them to receive updates, send data to cloud-based platforms for analysis, and be controlled remotely.
  7. Open-Source Software: Many FarmBot projects use open-source software, which allows users to customize and improve the system according to their needs.

These technologies work together to enable FarmBots to perform various agricultural tasks with precision and efficiency.

In addition to the technologies mentioned earlier, there are a few more that can be used in a FarmBot system:

  1. Actuators: These are devices that convert electrical signals into physical movement. They are used in FarmBots to control the movement of the robotic arm, open and close valves for watering, and adjust other mechanical components.
  2. Microcontrollers: These are small computers that control the sensors, actuators, and other electronic components of the FarmBot. They can be programmed to execute specific tasks based on sensor data and user commands.
  3. 3D Printing: Some parts of a FarmBot, such as custom brackets or plant holders, can be created using 3D printing technology. This allows for easy customization and repair of the system.
  4. Machine Learning: Advanced FarmBot systems might employ machine learning algorithms to improve their efficiency over time. For example, a FarmBot could learn the most effective watering patterns or weed removal techniques based on past performance and environmental conditions.
  5. Solar Power: Some FarmBots are equipped with solar panels to provide a sustainable and off-grid power source, making them more environmentally friendly and suitable for remote locations.
  6. Drones: In larger agricultural operations, drones can be used in conjunction with FarmBots to provide aerial imaging and mapping, helping to plan and monitor the FarmBot’s activities on a larger scale.

These technologies enhance the capabilities of FarmBots, making them more versatile and effective in various agricultural tasks.

Steps to learn robotics.

Learning robotics can be an exciting and rewarding journey. Here are some steps you can take to get started:

  1. Understand the Basics:
    • Learn about electronics: Start with basic electronic components like resistors, capacitors, and transistors. Understand how circuits work.
    • Study programming: Familiarize yourself with programming languages commonly used in robotics, such as Python, C++, or Arduino’s programming language.
  1. Explore Robotics Kits:
    • Start with a beginner’s kit: Kits like the Arduino Starter Kit or the LEGO Mindstorms series are great for beginners. They come with instructions and all the necessary components to build simple robots.
    • Progress to advanced kits: As you gain confidence, move on to more advanced kits that allow for more complex constructions and programming.
  1. Take Online Courses and Tutorials:
    • Use online platforms: Websites like Coursera, Udacity, and edX offer courses in robotics, programming, and electronics.
    • Watch tutorials: YouTube is a great resource for free tutorials on robotics projects, programming, and electronics.
  1. Join a Robotics Community:
    • Participate in forums: Join online forums like Reddit’s r/robotics or the Arduino Forum to ask questions, share projects, and learn from others.
    • Join a robotics club: If there’s a robotics club in your area, consider joining to meet like-minded individuals and gain hands-on experience.
  1. Work on Projects:
    • Start simple: Begin with basic projects like building a line-following robot or a remote-controlled car.
    • Increase complexity: Gradually take on more challenging projects that require integrating sensors, actuators, and more complex programming.
  1. Learn from Books:
    • Read introductory books: Books like «Make: Electronics» by Charles Platt and «Robot Building for Beginners» by David Cook can provide a solid foundation.
    • Explore advanced texts: As you progress, delve into more advanced books that cover topics like robotic arms, autonomous vehicles, and artificial intelligence in robotics.
  1. Participate in Competitions:
    • Join robotics competitions: Competitions like FIRST Robotics or RoboCup can provide valuable experience and a chance to apply what you’ve learned.

Remember, learning robotics is a journey that requires patience and persistence. Don’t be afraid to experiment, make mistakes, and keep exploring new technologies and concepts.

«Sensor rails» and «instrumented rails».

Rails equipped with sensors or devices are commonly referred to as «sensor rails» or «instrumented rails» in the context of robotics and automation. These rails are designed to support and guide robotic arms or other automated machinery, while also incorporating sensors that can detect the position, speed, or other attributes of the moving components. The sensors provide feedback to the control system, allowing for precise movement and operation of the robotic equipment. In some cases, these rails might also be called «linear guides» or «linear actuators» when they are specifically designed to provide linear motion along a single axis.

To find and purchase sensor-equipped rails or linear guides online, you can use specific search terms that match the type of rail you’re looking for. Here are some suggestions:

  1. Linear Guide with Sensors: If you’re looking for a linear guide that has built-in sensors for position detection or feedback.
  2. Sensor Rails for Robotics: Use this term if you’re specifically looking for rails with sensors that are suitable for robotics applications.
  3. Instrumented Linear Rails: This term can be used to find linear rails that are equipped with instrumentation, such as sensors for measuring position, speed, or other parameters.
  4. Smart Linear Guides: Some manufacturers might use the term «smart» to indicate that their linear guides have integrated sensors or other intelligent features.

When searching, you can also include specific requirements such as the length of the rail, the type of sensors needed (e.g., magnetic, optical, inductive), or the load capacity. Additionally, consider checking the websites of well-known manufacturers of linear motion systems and automation components, as they often offer a range of products that might meet your needs.

Companies suggested to find the required hardware.

  1. Festo: Known for their pneumatic and electric automation technology, Festo offers a wide range of components for robotic systems, including linear actuators, grippers, and sensors.
  2. igus: Specializing in motion plastics, igus provides a variety of self-lubricating bearings, linear guides, and cable management systems that are commonly used in robotics.
  3. Misumi: A global manufacturer and distributor of mechanical components, Misumi offers precision linear guides, actuators, and custom-made components for robotic applications.
  4. SMC Corporation: A leading provider of pneumatic and electric automation equipment, SMC offers a range of products including actuators, valves, and sensors for robotics.
  5. THK: Known for their linear motion systems, THK provides high-quality linear guides, ball screws, and actuators that are widely used in robotic applications.
  6. KUKA: A leading manufacturer of industrial robots, KUKA offers a wide range of robotic arms and components for various applications.
  7. Universal Robots: Specializing in collaborative robots (cobots), Universal Robots offers flexible and user-friendly robotic arms that are suitable for a wide range of applications.

When looking for a provider, it’s important to consider factors such as the specific requirements of your project, the quality and reliability of the components, and the level of technical support offered by the company.

The first farmbot was created on 2011, 12 years ago.

The first FarmBot was created by Rory Aronson in 2011 as part of his senior project in mechanical engineering at California Polytechnic State University. The concept was further developed and eventually led to the creation of the FarmBot Genesis, which was launched as a commercial product through a successful Kickstarter campaign in 2016. The FarmBot Genesis is considered the first open-source CNC farming machine of its kind, designed to automate small-scale food production. Since then, the technology has continued to evolve, with newer models and improvements being introduced to enhance its capabilities and usability.